Design work is an essential part of the whole construction process. At this stage, all the basic design decisions are determined, as well as the technology of the work, materials, and equipment. That is why developers and development companies carefully select project teams to carry out design work.
Design work usually takes from 3 to 5% of the total construction estimate, however, the quality and correctness of design decisions affect the cost of all other expenses. Also, the accordance of design documentation with current building norms is important when passing an examination and obtaining permits for construction.
Depending on the complexity of the construction project, design work is divided into stages. The main stages are pre-design work, preliminary design, design documentation, and working documentation.
Pre-design work is the initial stage of design. It's carried out to determine the rational location of the object on the land plot, the external dimensions and volume of the building, the appearance and style of the building, previous master plan schemes, and landscaping.
Pre-design work sets investment attractiveness, the possibility of building or reconstructing an object on this area, taking into account urban planning, historical, cultural, socio-economic, sanitary and hygienic and environmental requirements, and conditions.
The preliminary design determines the situational plan with the adjacent territories, the general development plan, the architectural concept of the object, floor plans, functional connections of rooms and floors, visualization of facades, and colorization. If necessary, at the preliminary design stage, object mock-ups can be made.
Design documentation is the main approved design phase. Based on it, building permits are received, estimates for the work are calculated, and a construction budget is formed. Stage "Project" determines the potential reliability of structures, the possibility of implementing certain requirements, and many other general characteristics of the design object. At this stage, a full range of survey works (geology, exploration, topography, etc.) is carried out, and technical conditions are obtained for connecting the facility to utility networks. As you receive positive reports on the approved stage of project documentation, the next stage of design begins, the stage of “Working documentation.”
The working documentation stage is developed based on pre-approved documentation of the “Project” stage for construction and installation works. The stage of working documentation details and clarifies all decisions made at the previous stages. In the working documentation, a detailed specification of all the elements, equipment, materials, and products that will be used during construction and preparatory work is necessarily prescribed, and the final estimated cost of construction is formed.
Design decisions made during design work should take into account factors such as reliability, safety, quality, and cost. The materials and equipment that are included in the project must meet modern environmental standards, fire safety, operational safety, and manufacturability. The direct execution of work must comply with all conditions prescribed in the design documentation. Therefore, each decision and design documentation drawings must comply with regulatory documents and rules approved by state building codes.